Canada is the second largest country in the world, extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean with claims extending to the North Pole. The northern-most country on the mainland of North America, Canada has land borders only with the United States.
Governed as a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, Canada is a federation of ten provinces with three territories. Initially constituted in 1867, the country's constitution was patriated in 1982 from the United Kingdom.
Canada's head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is represented in Canada by the Governor General, currently MichaŽlle Jean. The head of government is the Prime Minister, currently Paul Martin.
Canada's official languages are English and French. As of 2005, its official population estimate is approximately 32.4 million.